An overview of written works of photography in the Qajar era
In 1871, three years after the development of photography in France, this phenomenon entered the Iranian court. Photography became popular during the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar. The Qajar king, with interest and seriousness, discovered and experienced different angles of his new entertainment. For this purpose, some chemistry and physics teachers of the Academy of Arts and some European photographers were appointed to teach the king and courtiers. Nevertheless, the essential need for written educational resources in the field of photography was quite evident. These Persian writings acquainted the king and court photographers and other interested people with the generalities and details of photography practices and provided the necessary and complementary training.
From the beginning of the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah to the end of the Qajar reign, various texts which were related to photography have been translated or published. Most of these texts, translated from French and English, dealt extensively with the technical aspects of photography and they guided many photographers of the time.
Undoubtedly, the great importance of the writings of the first decades of the development of photography in Iran cannot be denied in understanding the evolution of methods, facilities, and some issues which were related to photography in that period. There are more than twenty notes and manuscripts and printed books related to the first decades of the development of photography in Iran in Persian language, which are kept in the manuscripts of libraries or in private collections.
Up to today, among the published books about the history of photography in Iran, the book of the "history of photography" and "pioneer photographers in Iran" by Yahya Zaka and the book "Treasure of Iranian Photographs" by Iraj Afshar, have been introduced some of the notes and books of photography of Qajar period. Also, in parts of the book of Nasser al-Din Shah, the photographer, written by Mohammad Reza Tahmasbpour, introduction of and research about some of these ancient photographic texts have been done.
In the book of "Qajar and photography instruction", the books and writings of photography in the Qajar period in 2012, published by the author of the present article and published by Farzan Rooz Publications, the full text of these written works based on their historical order was made available to interested parties and researchers, in order to increase the possibility of further study and research on their content. The author's purpose in this book is to collect, correct, and add Persian photographic inscriptions, and undoubtedly more research and additional explanations about the various references in them need more chance, and we hope this important issue will be done by other researchers in the history of photography in our country.
This study has introduced and briefly reviewed 22 written works of photography in the Qajar era based on the date that they were written.
1. The Photography Thesis
The photography thesis is the oldest writing in Persian about the art of photography. it consists of 14 pages with dimensions of 15.6 cm. This book, written in broken Nastaliq script with the number of 2841, is kept in the manuscript repository of Sepahsalar School.
This thesis, which the author is unknown was written in 1858, and on the back page of it is mentioned that it was in Etemad-ol-Saltaneh library in the same year; but in 1880, it was dedicated to the library of the Nasiri school (Sepahsalar).
The image of the last page of the Photography Thesis
The topics are: in the description of photographic drugs / in the definition of paper and putting it in liquid / in dropping paper into liquid / in making the original photo (positive).
The photography thesis describes the method of paper negative photography as a side photo. In this thesis, the term original photo is equivalent to a positive photo. Negative paper method invented by Talbot in 1840, and it was registered by the name Talbotype in 1841. This was the first way to print a photo from a negative image on paper.
Karim Emami has written in his appendix of the History of Photography and Pioneering Photographers by Yahya Zaka: "... Regard to the life of Malik Qasim Mirza and the emergence of the art of photography ... Who else but King Qasim Mirza can be the author of this thesis? Is there any other one who has photographed with paper negatives? whether Malik Qasim Mirza himself in has traveled to France in 1849, and studied photography there, or he photographed in Europe through correspondence or rehearsals with Europeans, he alone can be the author of this small thesis; Even if its instructions were originally read in Russian or Turkish, we know that Malik Qasim Mirza, in addition to Persian, Turkish, French and English, also knew Russian. Considering of his life clearly shows that at the time this thesis was written (1858 or earlier), other Iranians who may have translated photography works focused about the Collodion method, not the negative paper method. Therefore, there is no choice but to consider Malik Qasim Mirza as the author of the book of photography” (Zaka, 2005: 383).
Although the reasons which are presented by Karim Emami are convincing; But since there is no evidence to support this hypothesis, it cannot be conclusively accepted.
Malik Qasim Mirza, son of Naser al-Din Shah, born in 1808 knew six languages. It can be assured that this prince due to traveling to Europe and studying in France, at a time when the invention of the camera was the topic of the day, and also because of his interaction with Europeans in Iran and his attention to modern knowledge and culture, he was the first Iranian who had a camera and photographed it in a daguerreotype and then Collodion method.
2. Mahalati’s Photo Book
The second photography book of Iran is the photo book of Mahallati, which was written by Mirza Mohammad Kazem Mahallati in 1864 by the order of Naser al-Din Shah. In the introduction of the book, this issue is mentioned:
"The book is a photo book that is written by the Majesty, the Almighty, Nasser al-Din Shah Ghazi, Muhammad Kazem Mahallati, the son of Ahmad Mahallati.
Five manuscript copies of this book are available in the libraries of Sepahsalar library, National library of Iran, Etemad al-Dawla library in Hamedan and Majles library. The full text of the book "Qajar and Photography instruction" belongs to the Sepahsalar Library and contains 176 pages.
On the first page of the photo book, the registration and endowment forms of this book in the library of Etemad-ol-Saltaneh and the Nasiri school in the years of 1880 and 1865 were written.
The titles of the contents of this book are as follows:
Introduction. In expressing the meaning of some words in natural wisdom.
Chapter One. In objects, components and inks used in photography and their construction and place of use.
Chapter Two. In photography: in the history of this industry / in Daguerreotype , in light and its effect (definition of light and its properties and description of the seven-color spectrum in sunlight) In photography / in photography on the wet Collodion.
Chapter Three. In the various works of photographers: in Positive Dirk / in dry Collodion / in albumen Collodion/ in Collodion quotes / in egg white photography called albumin / in paper photography (including dry wax paper , biomass paper and wet paper).
Conclusion. In blue action.
The photos of pages 50 and 51 of Mahallati photo book
The author of the book, Mirza Mohammad Kazem Mahallati (1835-1869), spent his secondary education at the Academy of Arts. In the year 1863. He was sent to Europe (France) for higher education at government expense. His field of study was botany as well as pharmacy. In the year 1862, he returned to Iran and was appointed a teacher of pharmacy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, and mining at Polytechnic of Dar ul-Funun, and supervised the chemistry laboratory, where he taught until the end of his life.
Mirza Kazem also wrote poetry and wrote for Danesh newspaper. He became known as Mirza Kazem Khan Khan of Chemistry due to his specialization in teaching chemistry. He translated and authored various books in Persian.
3. The way of making photography materials from a photographer prescription
The way of making Photography materials from a Photographer's version is the third Persian writing about photography. This note is written in broken Nastaliq script at the beginning of the second list of king, and Badri Atabai has published the text of these manuscripts in the first part of the list of albums of the Royal Library. The full text of them is given in the book History of Zaka Photography.
Page 10 of Royal Library Albums
It seems that Nasser al-Din Shah, due to his great interest in the emergence and printing of photography, in 1870 prepared a list of chemical materials needed for photography and how to use them from the version of Aghar Reza , the photographer .
Strongly speaking, Aghar Reza wrote these manuscripts from the French manuscripts of Carlhian . These writings were written about thirty years after the invention of photography.
This note deals with the Collodion process, the albumin paper process, and the salt photo process, and includes the following: Collodion / silver Collodion / albumin silver for silver paper / silver for salt pape r / procyclic acid silver / alumina sulfide / direction Formation / Procyclic acid which is the essence of mazo / Cyanide which is poisonous / Varnish for glass / Making gold to fix photo paper and make hyposulfide.
The author of this memo, Nasser al-Din Shah, the art-loving and fun-loving king of Qajar, in the first years of his reign, using the guidance and experience of the photographer Carlhian (who came to Iran in 1859 at the request of the Shah to promote photography), to learn and experience in art.
It can be said that Nasser al-Din Shah is the second Iranian who became acquainted with the science and practice of photography after Malik Qasim Mirza. Her first photographs are mostly of women in shrines and slaves, children and buildings inside. He took photographs of many of his favorite subjects, made albums and references.
The King set up the Mobarakeh royal photography studio to do his photographic work. Aqar Reza Khan, who had learned photography from the Carlhian at the behest of the King, became a photographer and director of the royal photography studio, formalized this new art; and from then on, many photos of all affairs, cities and different classes of people and men were taken and placed in albums, and collected in the album of the royal house in Golestan Palace in Shams-ol-Emareh (Zaka, 2005: 26 to 40, in summary).
4. Photography book by Ali Bakhsh Mirza
The fourth Persian inscription about photography is the photography book of Alibakhsh Mirza which is translated by order of Haji Ismail Mirza (Crown Prince's photographer) in 1878.
This book is written in Nastaliq script and kept in the apparent library of Damascus and there is no other copy of it in Iran.
According to some references in the book, the main text is in French and the scientific terms in the text are marked with numbers in parentheses so that their Persian equivalents are written at the end of the book.
The topics of this book are:
Chapter One. The chemical and physical action of light on some objects: Zia's chemical action and effect rules of photography without silver salt/ In theoretical science, the principles of positivity and facial nature / In theoretical science, the principles of photographic rules without silver salt.
Chapter Two. In Chemistry Photographic: In silver salts, / in various materials used in photography.
Chapter Three. About the place they have chosen for the photographic operation. In expressing the pharmacy and the actions that should be taken there.
In the historical section, the following topics are discussed: Detailed description of the history of chemistry and physics of light, Daguerreotype method, Talbot method, description of the works of some famous people in photography, Collodion methods, Bichromate gelatin, Albumin and Collodion, Heliographic and Heliogavure engraving.
The photo of the eighth page of the photography section of Alibakhsh Mirza's book
Not much is known about Alibakhsh Mirza. In the book Treasure of Iranian Photographs by Iraj Afshar, a brief reference is made to him: "Ali Bakhsh, the son of Iskandar, the son of Abbas Shah, Fath Ali Shah Qajar was one of the great princes and translators of the court of Muzaffar al-Din Mirza, Crown Prince Nasser al-Din Shah" (Afshar, 1992: 32).
Etemad-al-Saltaneh also wrote about him in Meraat-e-Baladan: He has perfect skills in literature and some European traditions, and the translator of the blessed presence of the Crown Prince, Adamullah Zalalah, is with him.
5. Sevruguin Photography Art Book
The photography art book is the fourth book and the second translation in Persian about photography. This book was translated from French by Antoine Sevruguin from the book of Monsieur Liber , one of the famous photographers of his time in Paris, and presented to Crown Prince Muzaffar al-Din Mirza in 1916 in Tabriz.
This book is available in the Manuscripts section of the National Library of Iran and contains 205 pages in Nastaliq script, and in the margins of its pages, technical terms are described in French.
The table of contents of the photography art is as follows:
The first part of the book. In the science of photography, it is called charcoal and the way it is practiced is that it is drawn to the field of writing: in the expression, arranging the photo studio to take a photo and opening it with the necessary objects / in expressing, making the paper felt / Transparent faces of charcoal that they want to print bigger on them / The method of polishing and transferring the faces and pasting them on the cardboard / The method of transferring the face is on ivory and painting curtains and on porcelain, etc. / in the expression of the multiplication of stereotypes by means of the charcoal method in order to study a large number of photographs / in the expression of the engrave that are popularized or reversed.
Part Two. It is in the expression of enlarging the faces with charcoal engrave / In the expression of enlarging the faces is charcoal by Shamber Soler / In the expression it is changing the background of the image by means of immediate engrave.
A picture of the final pages of Sevruguin's book on photography
Antoin Sevruguin (Armenian, Tehran, 1840-1933, Tehran) studied photography with Dimitri Ivanowitch Jermakof (1845- 1916). in Tbilisi after studying painting. Sevruguin returned to Iran in 1870 and established his own photography studio in Tabriz. Then, due to his fame, he went to the door of Muzaffar al-Din Mirza and became one of the official photographers. He later left for Tehran and established his own photography studio there. He was a high-ranking photographer of the court of Nasser al-Din Shah and later kings and even the court of Reza Shah. Apart from the King and his relatives, many aristocrats of Tehran and tribal elders were his clients. Sevruguin showed aspects of Iranian culture to his clients. He took photographs of men and women with different religious backgrounds, in local costumes and with jobs specific to the Orient. Over time, Antoine provided large and precious collections of old Iranian photographic glass (about 7,000 pieces), all of which were later destroyed by riots. He has the Lion and Sun Diamond Badge from the Government of Iran and the Gold Medal of Honor from the 1897 Salb Exhibition. Brussels and the 1900 exhibition. It was Paris and a few other medals that printed the image of them on some of the logos of their photography, behind the photographs. He also co-authored photographs of Siri's great book on Iranian art, written by Professor Pope (Zaka, 136-142, abbreviated).
6. The thesis of the collection of industries, chapter forty-four
The sixth Persian inscription of photography is the forty-fourth chapter of the book of the collection of industries entitled in the science of photography, which means taking a photo from the ray of light. This book describes some of the old industries. There are several manuscript copies of this book available in Iran.
The collection of industries was lithographed in Mumbai in 1878 by Mirza Mohammad Shirazi (King of Books) and was dedicated to Mirza Hossein Khan Sepahsalar.
Most likely, the contents of this booklet are the first published publication for general photography education on a large scale; Therefore, it has great value in the field of photography history in Iran. Based on the style of writing of the book, it is possible that the forty-fourth chapter adder to the collection of industries translated it from an old English text with a summary and included it in this collection.
Fireworks industry and making gunpowder, bookbinding industry and making composite types for writing and stamping, printing industry, cement making industry, making glass and colorful crystal, enameling industry on gold, silver and copper, etc. are among the various techniques that have been proposed in the collection of industries.
The titles of the contents of the forty-fourth chapter of the collection of industries are as follows:
Chapter One. In this introduction, the details are explained.
Chapter Two. As materials that must first be prepared and placed in a dark room.
Chapter Three. By taking a photo;
Chapter Four. In the form of printing photos from glass on paper and medicines that are necessary and must be prepared ahead of time.
Page 107 of the lithographic book of the collection of industries
7. Volume III of the book Meraat al-Baladan Naseri, the events of the seventeenth year of the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah
The seventh Persian writing of photography and also the second published work in this field is a note from Mohammad Hassan Khan Etemad-ol-Saltaneh in the book Meraat al-Baladan Naseri.
Etemad-ol-Saltaneh, on pages 20 to 24 of the third volume of Meraat al-Baldan - in 1878 - along with referring to the works done during the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah, following the events of the seventeenth year of the reign of Qajar Shah (1868), describes the photographic situation.
This article can be used as a reliable source in compiling some important points in the history of Iranian photography; notes such as the year of the beginning of photography in Iran, the first daguerreotype photographer in Iran, the first professional photographer appointed by the King, Mobarakeh Photography Studio, photo reports by Mr. Reza Akbashbashi on Nasser al-Din Shah's great travels to Iran and information about Karshish, Foteki, and Karl Yune that took photographs by the method of Talbot-type, Albumin and Collodion.
The author of the book, Mohammad Hassan Khan (1841-1896) after the opening of the Academy of Arts in 1851. He entered the military field of this school and gradually took military positions.
page 20 of the third volume of Meraat-al-Baladan of Naseri
In 1864, he worked at the Iranian embassy in Paris, during which time he completed the French language and obtained new information. After returning to Iran, he was appointed court translator. In the year 1872, he was entrusted with the administration of the official newspaper and later as the director of the translation agency of the banned countries of Iran; Eventually, he was nicknamed Sani al-Dawla. In the year 1882, he was a member of the State Assembly and in 1883, the illustrated newspaper Sharaf was created under his management. He later served as Deputy Minister of Justice, Chairman of the Board of Trustees, Member of the State Assembly and Minister of Printing. In the year 1887, he was given the title of Etemad al-Saltaneh. For a long time, he was in charge of accounting for the city of Tehran and building the royal buildings and contracting them. In the introduction ceremony of the independent ministers of the State Department, he usually had the position of translator and sometimes he was on a mission to receive foreigners (Afshar, 2007, pp. 15-13).
His most important works were written at the daily events of the last sixteen years of his life, which began in 1881 until 1896. Etemad al-Saltaneh was close to the King. He was a companion of the King in his travels and in the presence and privacy of him, and of course, he can be considered as an incestuous member of the King (the same, Introduction, 8).
Etemad al-Saltaneh was familiar with photography and sometimes took photos for fun. He has mentioned these things many times in his memoirs: "I stayed at home and took a photo", "I went to Ashtian town with Manouchehr Mirza, I took the photo of that old man in Ashtian", "I asked Farang for a travel photo through Toko," early in the morning I went to Toko shop, saw the furniture and liked it” (Zaka, 310).
8. The Rules of photography and telegraph Rules
The Rules of photography and telegraph Rules by Hassan ibn Alireza Lahiji Najafi is the eighth Persian writing of photography. This book was published in 1881. It is kept in the Central Library of the University of Isfahan with the number 8092. Also, its microfilm with the number 4573 is available in the Central Library of the University of Tehran. The book is written in the form of 69 pages with dimensions of 11.7 cm.
The author wrote the book under the names of Mohammad Taqi Mirza Rokna al-Dawla (Governor of Khorasan) and Mehdi Qalikhan Saham al-Mulk . The rules of photography and telegraph, based on one of the methods of dividing the book in the Qajar era, have been written in three darkness, fourteen lights and one mirror, and have dealt with the method of photography and aspects of photography, appearance and printing of glass, combination of medicines, photo magnification, etc.
The titles of the different sections of this book are as follows:
Forms and moods in special situations to the donations of light and darkness and special spices of light. In stating the list and names of used spices and instruments and public affairs that are not dedicated to the operations of future lights.
Radius. In the quality of reflection / first darkness. It is in the instruments and the place of making spices and making chalcedony / the second darkness. In the place of the inverse and the index is / the third darkness. Is in place of the agent / the first light. Is in the amount / second light. The purity of the action [and] (instruments) is the opposite / the third light. How to use Collodion Iodine is Burma / the Fourth Light. The action of the bath is silver / the fifth light. In knowing Collodion iodine is bromine / the sixth light. The bathroom is silver / the seventh light. In taking pictures / is the eighth light. It is in the medicine of emergence / the ninth light. It is a medicine of proof / the tenth light. It is strong in alum / the Eleventh light. In Smile and Revenge [= to map] is the image in paper / the twelfth light. It is in the medicine of proof / the thirteenth light. It is in a solution of gold / the fourteenth light. It is a solution of hyposol [= sodium hyposulfite].
Pages 19 and 20 of the Rules of Photography and Telegraph
9. Papazian's way of taking photograph at home
Papazian's ways of taking photograph at home are one-page photographs related to photography, which are available at the beginning of a collection of manuscripts numbered 3966 in the manuscript repository of the Central Library of the University of Tehran.
This article, which is the ninth article about photography, describes the method of photographing one of the Nasserite photographers named Papazian in 1882 from the line of Sarkar Moien Lashkar. This is the ninth article about photography, based on the line of Sarkar Moien Lashkar, the method of taking photo one of the photographers of the Nasserite period named Papazian in 1882.
Apparently, the mentioned linear collection was compiled by a poet named Yaghma Jandaghi; Because on pages 5 and 6, his letters to his children with the phrase Harrahi Yaghma and they are seen in 1875 and 1884. Part of the list of contents in this war is as follows:
A note from the line of Sarkar Moien Lashkar about how the Papazian’s were photographed on Tuesday, the year of 1882 in his house and how photographic materials were combined with him / Letters of Yaghma Jandaghi to Nawab and his son / In Persian / History of the Ottoman Sultans from the beginning to the time of writing the war.
The main author of these photographic notes, according to the same text, was a person nicknamed Moin Lashkar, who wrote a description of his observations of the method of photography and the combination of photographic materials by Papazian.
A one-page manuscript of how Papazian take photos at home
Hosik Papazian or Joseph Papazian is the son of the priest Masrup Papazian, who studied photography in Tbilisi in 1881. He established his photography workshop in Tabriz. With the guidance of his father, he founded the theater in Tabriz, and in connection with photography, it should be said that many ancient theatrical and theatrical photographs are among his works. Then, he established his photography workshop in Tehran and contacted the Iranian court, and due to his high skill, he was awarded the Golden Lion and the Golden Sun by the King of Iran.
10. Mahmoud’s Photography Book
The photography book which is translated by Mirza Mahmoud Khan is the tenth Persian writing on this subject, which was published in 1301 AH. Was written. Also, this book is the third text translated from French to Persian in this field.
This book, which is kept in the manuscript repository of the National Library of Iran with the number 1091 / F, is written in Nastaliq script in 18 chapters and contains 156 pages.
Mahmoud's photography book contains information about the origins of photography and the method of photography and the emergence of film.
This book has entered the main topic without introduction. On page 144 of the book, it is emphasized that because it was written for advanced photographers, it does not deal with the basics.
Introduction to the history of the invention and popularization of the Collodion method and the names of the people who complete it, various formulas for making Collodion and sensitive materials, expressing changes in the use and invention of different prescriptions and changing the amount of materials in making Collodion, Positive photographs or slides, descriptions of the amphitheater process, information about a type of aggregator called a biograph, and stereoscopic photography are some of the things described in this book. Also, in this book, with two simple descriptive designs, the method of impregnating glass with Collodion is described.
The name of "Mahmoud. P. T. »is written in Latin script at the top of the first page and it seems that the translator of the book is Mahmoud, the son of Mirza Mohammad Kazem Mahallati, the author of the book of photography and the chemistry teacher of the Academy of Arts. At the end of the book, there is a signature in Latin letters with the name of Mahmoud, which is dated 1884. Has below. The original author of the book translated by Mirza Mahmud Khan is not known and is not mentioned in the book.
Pages 91 and 92 of Mahmoud's photography book
11. The science of photography book by Sani-al-Saltanah
The science of photography book is the eleventh Persian writing of photography and was written by Mirza Ahmad Khan Sani-al-Saltanah for Naser al-Din Shah. This book is written in Nastaliq script in 19 pages and is kept in the National Library of Iran with registration number 487.
The titles of the topics of the book of the science of photography are as follows: Introduction: The names of new industries and the benefits of them/ phototypie which is called Naseri / enlarging the photo / molding the light which is called Heliogravure / colorful photo which is called photogliptie / the industry is smiling on marble / gilding metals and glass and mirror frames and curtains and sofas and ...
Pages 11 and 12 of the book
The author of the book, Mirza Ahmad Khan, son of Mirza Ali Tabib Sangalji, was born in 1848. He studied medicine at the Academy of Arts, but his enthusiasm for natural sciences forced him to study photography without a teacher, and finally chose photography as his job (Etemad-ol-Saltaneh, 1879, vol. 2, p. 95).
He later went to Europe and completed photography course there, he also learned stereotyping, engraving, printing, porcelain and engraving, and after returning from there, he was employed as a photojournalist at the Dar ul-Funun. He was also nicknamed Sani-al-Saltanah by Muzaffar al-Din Shah; On his first trip to Europe, he and his son Ibrahim Khan were photographers in the footsteps of the King, and in addition to photography, the king was able to bring the first filming equipment to Iran through them. In 1907, he was still the director of the Dar ul-Funun Photography Studio of the Academy of Arts. He was one of the most prolific and active photographers in the scientific and practical fields of his time and his photographs are kept in several albums in the Golestan Palace Album House (Zaka, 2005: 75-78, in summary).
12. Chapter 8 of the book Maser-al-Asar, promoting the science and practice of photography
"Promoting the science and practice of photography" is the twelfth text and also the third text of Persian lithography about photography, which is on page 94 of the book Maaser-al-Asar. Mohammad Hassan Khan Etemad-ol-Saltaneh published this book on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah in 1889.
This article is a report on the beginning of photography in Iran in 1887. Also, this article refers to Rishar Khan and the prevalence of daguerreotype in the Naser al-Din Shah Qajar era.
Page 94 of the book Maaser-al-Asar
13. The Hashriyeh photography book
This is the thirteenth Persian writing in Iranian photography and probably the first independent printed book in this field.
This book was written by Mohammad ibn Ali Mashkooh al-Malik under the direction of Mirza Mohammad Khan, Nasser al-Din Shah's special waiter and in 1890, which was published it in 56 pages with lithography.
A lithographic version of the book numbered 526678 K. M-301 44 / D and also its microfilm with the number 8395 is available in the Central Library of the University of Tehran.
In this book, Mashkooh al-Malik confirms a number of religious issues by emphasizing the characteristics of photography, as well as comparing the processes of photography - emergence and printing - with human actions and intentions in the world and their reflection in the world after death.
In different sections of the book, depending on the subject, hadiths, verses of the Qur'an or various poems are presented to ensure these comparisons as an introduction to the author's specific conclusion.
In the introduction of the book, the author states his main purpose as follows: He does not conceal some divine news and commandments until he has imagined them in the veil of conscience without proof. The verses, which are evident in the frequency, offer that each of them is an example for the regulation of the creative apparatus, which embodies and strengthens the ideas, and named it in accordance with the insect photo, so that the readers do not lose their boredom.
Pages 50 and 51 of the book
Capturing the photo of objects and other things with a camera, taking care of the preparation and combination of materials and photographic sensitive materials, sensitizing negative glass and placing it in the camera and photographing, the phenomenon of hidden image and negative appearance, using cyanide to cool the negative, coating the glass. Negative with varnish coating to protect the emulsion, sensitize the paper with silver solution, print the photo in daylight, use cyanide to remove contaminants from the silver solution, wash the printed photo with water, stain the photo with gold solution, fix, present and display Photo by sticking it on cardboard and ... are the topics of the photography section of this book.
On pages 33 and 51 of this book, to complete the explanation of the technical issues of photography, the method of pouring Collodion on glass, shackles and silver bath paper is drawn.
14. Ahmed's book, the tenth conversation
The fourteenth Persian writing about photography is found in the book of Ahmad or the Talebi. This book was published in 1890 Mirza Abdul Rahim Najarzadeh Tabrizi, known as Talibov, written and used in lead printing in Istanbul, Turkey. The mentioned book in 1902, was reprinted in Istanbul.
A copy of the first edition of this book with the number V.1-C.2- B / 345 is available in the collection of Ali Asghar Hekmat in the Central Library of the University of Tehran.
Pages 100 to 105 of Ahmad's book below are about photography.
Pages 100 and 102 of Ahmad's book
The method of photography, the inversion of the image on the opaque glass of the camera, the physical and chemical effects of light in photography, the daguerreotype method, several scientific applications of photography, rapid photography, etc. are mentioned in Ahmad Behmajal's book.
Also, the contents of this book are paragraphed and additional explanations are given in a footnote.
An image is drawn in the book entitled The Quality of His Drawing and Reflection.
The author of the book, Mirza Abdul Rahim (1835 to 1910) is from the 13th and 14th lunar centuries. Although Talibov did not have much education in Persian and Arabic, he is considered one of the simplistic of Persian prose. In the first parliament (1907) he was elected as a representative of the National Assembly by the people of Tabriz; But he apologized for accepting the representation and did not come to Tehran. Before the proclamation of constitutionalism, Talibov published useful books to enlighten the thoughts of his compatriots (Bamdad, 1378: v. 2, 263).
Talibov is one of the first Persian writers who "informed the people of his country by writing scientific novels and theater and translations of modern sciences, technologies and industries and the virtues of ethics in simple language" (Sarmad, 1994: 348).
15. Physics book
The fifteenth Persian writing of photography is included in the book of physics. This book was written by Abolghasem in 1893 and it is kept in the National Library of Iran with registration number 2842 / F.
The 168-page book, in Nastaliq script, deals with new topics in physics. Based on the reference on the last page, the author notes words in French, which increases the possibility of translating the text from French.
The beginning and end pages of the section on light and photography in the book of physics
The list of contents of the lighting and photography section of the physics book is as follows:
The fifth paper: Chapter One. In light and reflection / light sources / light and darkness / direct diffusion light line / shadow / quasi-shadow / light propagation / light speed / flat mirrors / scattered reflection / concave mirrors / reflection camera / convex mirrors.
The second chapter. In the refraction of radii and lenses / refraction of light / change of position of objects seen by refraction / refraction of the appearance of wood in water / lenses / the effect of inclined lenses / effects of natural lenses / instruments belonging to light / effects of natural light / related lenses / Magnifier / Astronomical Camera / Galileo Camera / Magic Lantern / Solar Magnifier.
The third chapter. In the decomposition of light / the operation of the al-Qaeda triangle in light / scattering / solar spectrum / recombination of white light / Newtonian circle / red arc / color of objects.
16. The eighth statement of the book Kashf-al-Sanaye and the Makhzan-al-Bazaeh (Muhammadi Selections)
The eighth statement of the book Kashf-al-Sanaye and the Makhzan-al-Bazaeh (Muhammadi Selections) is the sixteenth Persian writing of photography. This book was lithographed in 1894 by Mirza Mohammad Shirazi, nicknamed the Queen of Books in Mumbai, India. A copy of it with the number 703 / B is available in the Central Library of the University of Tehran.
Pages 51-58 of this book are dedicated to the photography industry and pages 89-94 of the book are dedicated to the English-Persian alphabetical dictionary of the names of the materials and compounds mentioned in the book.
In Muhammadi's elections, more than thirty techniques have been described. In the introduction, the author mentions this book as a selection of Persian and French books collected.
In the introduction of this book, it is stated that: "The twentieth expression in the photography industry is the details of its tools and spices", but in the text of the book, the subject of photography is written in the eighth expression.
The beginning and end pages of the twentieth expression of the book of discovery of the industry and the reservoir of wealth
The eighth statement of the Muhammadi selections is compiled in six chapters with the following titles: It is necessary for the beginner to first become acquainted with the terms of this science; therefore, the details of the instruments are stated first / in the expression of the place and time of taking the photo / in the expression of the focus, which means turning the position of the photo tool / the rules of taking the photo / in expressing the appearance of the photo / by printing the photo on paper.
In the last part of this expression, six images of the possibilities and methods of photography are drawn.
The author of this book is also the author or compiler of the book Collection of Industries (1878). This part of the book of Muhammadi selections is a copy of the forty-fourth chapter of the collection of industries, which is presented with some changes and an English-Persian dictionary is arranged at the end of it.
17. Shams-al-Shoara Photography Book
The photography book is a manuscript that is kept in the property library with the number 4266. This book is the seventeenth Persian writing of photography and the fourth translated work in this field and it has been translated by Mohsen Mirzashams-al-shoara.
The book of photography in Naskh script has been written in the form of 98 pages with dimensions of 6.3 * 5.9 cm.
Despite the fact that the exact date of writing the book is unknown, from the note on the first page and also the date of Mohsen Mirza's death in 1898, the period from 1893 to 1896 can be considered as the probable date of writing the book.
The beginning and end pages of Shams-al-Shoara's photography book
The table of contents of the science of photography of Sani-al-Saltanah is as follows:
The method of dry Collodion industry / Part one / Dry Collodion itself, how to make and industry it / Collodion glasses / Collodion / Collodion glass / Iodizing's album / Preparation of albumin varnish / the way of making varnish glass / Sensitizing the appearance of peeling glass dry glass / In glass fixation / in iodizing and drumming albumin. Note / Some consideration in emergence: Sensitization / Consideration in glass / Consideration in iodizing / Consideration in elliptical varnish / Scientific principles / Manuscripts / Pose and duration of photo removal / Emergence operation / Proof of glass / Dry resin that is good for green photo.
18. The eighth statement of the book Kashf-al-Sanaye and the selections of Ali-al-Husseini
The manuscript book entitled Kashf-al-Sanaye and the selections of Ali al-Husseini, on various subjects, has been written in Nastaliq script, which contains the eighteenth Persian writing of photography. This book number 2261 is kept in the Central Library of the University of Tehran and its author has not been identified precisely.
Kashf-al-Sanaye and Ali-al-Husseini's selections have also quoted the contents of the books of the collection of Majmo-al-Sanaye and Muhhamadi selections with a slight difference in the book's chapters. All three books have been published with a slight difference or addition of content by one person, Mirza Mohammad Shirazi, the king of the book, and he has changed its name to offer the book in later editions; however, in the recent book, there is more maturity in the sentences and logical order of the contents, as well as less mistakes than in Muhammadi's selections.
The beginning and end pages of the eighth statement of Kashf-al-Sanaye and the selections of Ali-al-Husseini
Topics related to photography are on pages 82 to 93 of this book and include the following topics: Introduction / Expressing the place and time of photography / Expressing focus means turning the camera / Rules of photography / Expressing the appearance of a photo / By printing a photo on paper.
19. The book of the radius of the sun in the mirrors and the back
The nineteenth Persian writing about photography is a book called the radius of the sun in the mirrors and the back, written by Mirza Shafi Khan Mohaghegh-al-Sultan, in 1905. It was written and donated to Muzaffar al-Din Shah Qajar.
The book is written in the form of 90 pages and in it, 128 topics and issues of photography have been studied. It is strongly believed that this book is now kept in private collections.
From the topics listed in the book's table of contents, it is assumed that some of its contents are translated from French. In some titles, the name of the photographer Mirza Ahmad and the prescription of his photographic materials can be seen.
Geranium paper on Darjeeling geranium / Corruptions that occur in Collodion and their treatment / Transfer of a positive photo on a linoleum cloth / Making enamel cladding / Sanitizing paper / Photos on porcelain crystals and enamels and blurring and porcelain broken porcelain dish / photo paper with gelatin, etc. are some of the topics that have been mentioned in this book for the first time.
due to the variety of topics, this book is very important, but unfortunately the original or full-page image of this book was not available to the author of this article for further study, and the above-mentioned material has been adapted from the book History of Photography and Leading Photographers in Iran.
Introduction to the above mentioned book
The table of contents of the book is as follows:
Hot Viraj Bath / Cold Viraj Bath / Cold Viraj Bath / [Two illegible words] in photo fixation / For the appearance of a dry Collodion photo / Another version that Mirza Ahmad works / Another version for fixing a photo in a dry Collodion glass / The method of appearance and fixation of the photo according to the instructions [...] / In dry Collodion/ The method of appearance of the photo by means of alkaline substance / To make chloride in [= Darjan] / Also in making chloride / In case of strengthening the positive glass / In In the silver bath / About keeping sensitive paper for three days / Another prescription for keeping sensitive paper [illegible word] / Paper proof bath / Collodion wet version Mirza Ahmad Photographer / Copy the same wet cradle / For the appearance of glass in wet glass / For the strength of glass / In glass Before being placed in the chassis / Regarding glass washing / When washing glass to make wet Collodion / About cleaning the glass surface from Collodion after cleaning / First version according to the instructions [illegible word] / Bath prescription for silver bath / The version [of the illegible word] / the version of the [illegible word] of the bath is as follows / about the supply of sensitive glass [the illegible word] / about the appearance of the photo in [the illegible word] and pyroglycic / In the photo proofing by hyposulfite, there are two benefits / for [...] / broken stone and porcelain / varnish for broken glass / [illegible word] for [illegible word] broken glass / for matte varnishes / Special varnishes for glass / Liquid for glossing photos / New photography instructions / [illegible word] For new photography dark instructions / About photo appearance and fixation / About photo glass printing / About sticking a photo on cardboard / To make the photo glass shiny / About a gold bath / A scientific treatise on the appearance of a photo with [...] Permanent / About cleanliness and cleanliness in photography / About [an illegible word] and strength Photo [...] / About the excess power of photo glass / About the occurrence of photo with pyroglycic acid, etc. / About the emergence of photo by hydroquinone / About strengthening low glass [...].
20. The artist’s book
The twentieth Persian writing about photography is a part of the Artist's book that was published in 1905 which was lithographed in Tabriz. The author of this book is Hossein, the director of Kamal Library in Tabriz and its author is Mirzataghi. A copy of it with the number 12989 / s is kept in the National Library of Iran.
The book is written in Nastaliq script in 160 pages. The photography section is on pages 80 to 101 of the book.
This book has dealt with five hundred different topics, some of which are: the level of the stranger's air / the purification of rotten oil / the cleaning of old cotton wool / the deposition of metals / the types of lacquer so that water does not pass under the leather under the shoes / photography [80 to 103].
The titles of the contents of the photography section of the Artist's book are as follows: Photography / The first method / Show the face (development) / The second method / The third method / A few words / Strengthening the irreversible glass (Ranqors) / Decreasing the strength of the glass / Water bath / Telvin bath / Positive bath / Arrangements / Ashton Cestad Arrangement Two Benefits / Borax Arrangement / Two Leframat Arrangements / Two-Shower Chloride Arrangement / Two Platinum Chloride Arrangement / Glaze for Photos / Cause of Failure in Photography / Negative Plate (Glass) / Positive Plate (Paper).
The beginning and end pages of the above mentioned book
21. The Science of New Photography
The twenty-first Persian writing in photography is the book "The Science of New Photography" written by Garnik Khan Dalkijian, which was published in 1908 with a lead edition in Tehran. This book is the first photographic writing that has been published in lead in Iran. Earlier, the book Safineh Talebi was published in the same way in Turkey.
A copy of this book with the number D3. T.R.145 is available in the collection of Ali Asghar Hekmat of the Central Library of the University of Tehran. There are also several copies of it in the National Library and in the hands of different people.
The science of new photography book has 222 pages. This book, according to some of the terms in it, seems to be a translation of a French text.
On the back cover of the book is written: "This is a book that describes all the new and emerging subjects of photography with great care, with very easy reading which is written by Garnik Khan Dalkijian who has a diploma from royal Medical Academy in Istanbul. [...] ».
Title pages and introduction of the Science of new Photography book